There are many vessels used to safely transport crude oil. Marine vessels, tank trucks, pipelines, and rail tank cars are all used in transporting liquefied and compressed hydrocarbon gases, liquid petroleum products, and crude oil hauling. All of these products must be safely moved from their point of origin to pipeline terminals, distributors, refineries, and ultimately to customers.
Bulk liquid petroleum products and crude oil are all moved in their natural state. When this business first got started, crude oil hauling in North Dakota was actually done by tank wagons that were drawn by horses. The product was then moved by rail and finally, the petroleum product was hauled in motorized vehicles. Once petroleum products have been delivered to pipelines or marine vessels, the product is picked up by non-pressure tank trucks and delivered to service stations and consumers. Crude oil is also moved via tank trucks from small producing wells around the country, to gathering tanks where it is held until distribution. Government agencies in most countries around the world closely regulate the transportation of petroleum products. These agencies closely regulate the design, testing, construction, inspection, operation, and safety devices that are used in the makeup of these types of oil hauling vehicles. Typically, these vehicles are tested for tank pressure and pressure release device testing before and during their operation.
Petroleum trucks that are used for crude oil hauling are generally made from aluminum, carbon steel, or a special elasticized fiberglass material. These tanks will vary in size from the 1,900-1 tank wagons to the big 53,200-1 tankers. Regulatory agencies control the size and weight of these trucks, which are dependent on bridge and highway capacity limitations. These trucks can be pressurized and non-pressurized, insulated and non-insulated, depending on their service and the kinds of product that they haul. Each tank truck will have a several different compartments, with their own loading and unloading, and safety-relief devices. The truck compartments must be separated by single or double walls. If incompatible products are being shipped at the same time, then regulations require that a double wall be used. Tank trucks come with a hatch at the top for loading either from that direction, valves for top and bottom loading, or both.
As a person who loads, unloads, and transports petroleum products, be sure to be well-trained with a good knowledge of crude oil hauling. Have a good understanding of petroleum products, their makeup, the hazards, exposures, operating procedures, and work practices needed to perform any of the related crude oil hauling jobs safely. Operators who are engaged in hauling crude oil should be present at all times during the process and should be well versed in emergency protocols.